A: If your wife files for a marital dissolution and serves you before you leave, then yes. The ATROS on the back of the summons restrict both parties from leaving the state without prior written consent or a court order. If you are leaving for work, then you likely would prevail even if she filed and tried to stop you. However, you would have to go through the court process and get an order. In any event, you should always keep your wife informed of your residence information so she can contact you and your son.
A: First, any lawyer would need to review the originating order to verify the matter was handled correctly at the get go. Then, you could file a motion to disqualify the Special Master. There are nowhere near enough fact assertions in your question, nor enough background, to even start on that path. Finally, I sense your displeasure with the justice system's handling of your case. Yet, there might be several reasons why your desired outcome has not been achieved. Aiming towards a different result than what you have gotten so far, there might be steps you can take - short of filing a motion to remove the Special Master. Please consider the entire range of alternatives before taking any action - and retain a local lawyer.
A: You have rights as a victim of domestic violence and should pursue citizenship, but I would recommend that you remain within the United States if citizenship is the goal. You are here legally, and should not leave. As for your second question, you need to look at the assets and debts - and yes, you are liable for community property debts. You say "his" debts, but I assume you mean debts your husband incurred during the course of the marriage. Please consult with a lawyer at once to protect your rights.